Hodson, R.E., W.A. Dustman, R.P. Garg and M.A. Moran. 1995. Prokaryotic in situ PCR: microscale distribution of specific genes and gene products in prokaryotic communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 61:4074-4082.
         Obtaining information on genetic capabilities and phylogenetic
    affinities of individual prokaryotic cells within natural communities is a
    high priority in the fields of microbial ecology, microbial biogeochemistry,
    and applied microbiology, among others.  A method is presented here for
    prokaryotic in situ PCR (PI-PCR), a technique which will allow single
    cells within complex mixtures to be identified and characterized
    genetically.  The method involves amplification of specific nucleic acid
    sequences inside intact prokaryotic cells, followed by color or fluorescence
    detection of the localized PCR product via brightfield or epifluorescence
    microscopy.  Prokaryotic DNA and mRNA were both used successfully as targets
    for PI-PCR.  We demonstrate the use of PI-PCR to identify nahA
    positive cells in mixtures of bacterial isolates and in model marine
    bacterial communities.