Blanton, J.O. 1996. Reinforcement of gravitational circulation by wind. In: D. G. Aubrey and C.T. Friedrichs (eds.), Buoyancy Effects On Coastal and Estuarine Dynamics, Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Volume 53, pp. 47-58. American Geophysical Union. Washington, D.C.
         Buoyancy inputs from riverine discharges form an estuarine-like frontal
    zone along coasts. The gravitational component of across-shelf circulation
    drives a near-surface flow seaward and a near-bottom flow shoreward.  Using
    data from the southeastern U.S. continental shelf, the buoyancy field is
    examined under upwelling and downwelling favorable wind stress. Numerical
    simulations and field data show that prolonged upwelling-favorable winds
    reinforce the gravitational circulation by enhancing its offshore component.
    Larger-than-normal riverine discharges in 1993 showed that this
    reinforcement caused a lens of warm, low-salinity coastal water to become
    detached from the coastal front and be advected seaward.  Reinforcement of
    this process enhances the loss of estuarine discharges from coastal areas. 
    Climatological data show that this loss increases as the mean upwelling
    favorable wind stress for the year increases.